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 Friday, January 25, 2013
More on "Craftsmanship"

TL;DR: To all those who dissented, you're right, but you're wrong. Craftsmanship is a noble meme, when it's something that somebody holds as a personal goal, but it's often coming across as a way to beat up and denigrate on others who don't choose to invest significant time and energy into programming. The Zen Masters didn't walk around the countryside, proclaiming "I am a Zen Master!"

Wow. Apparently I touched a nerve.

It's been 48 hours since I posted On the Dark Side of 'Craftsmanship', and it's gotten a ton of interest, as well as a few syndicated re-posts (DZone and a few others). Comments to the blog included a response from Dave Thomas, other blog posts have been brought to my attention, and Twitter was on FIRE with people pinging me with their thoughts, which turn out to be across the spectrum, approving and dissenting. Not at all what I really expected to happen, to be honest--I kinda thought it would get lost in the noise of others commenting around the whole thing.

But for whatever reason, it's gotten a lot of attention, so I feel a certain responsibility to respond and explain to some of the dissenters who've responded. Not to defend, per se, but to at least demonstrate some recognition and attempt to clarify my position where I think it's gotten mis-heard. (To those who approved of the message, thank you for your support, and I'm happy to have vocalized something you felt unable, unwilling, unheard, or too busy to vocalize yourself. I hope my explanations here continue to represent your opinions, but if not, please feel free to let me know.)

A lot of the opinions centered around a few core ideas, it seems, so let me try and respond to those first.

You're confusing "craftsmanship" with a few people behaving badly. That may well be, but those who behaved badly included at least one who holds himself up as a leader of the craftsman movement and has held his actions up as indications of how "craftsmen" should behave. When you do this, you invite this kind of criticism and association. So if the movement is being given a black eye because of the actions of a single individual, well, now you know how a bunch of moderate Republicans feel about Paul Ryan.

Corey is a nice guy, he apologized, don't crucify him. Of course he is. Corey is a nice guy--and, speaking well to his character, he apologized almost immediately when it all broke. I learned a long time ago that "true sorry" means you (a) apologize for your actions, (b) seek to remedy the damage your actions have caused ("make it right", in other words), and (c) avoid making the same mistake in the future. From a distance, it seems like he feels contrition, and has publicly apologized for his actions. I would hope he's reached out to Heather directly to try and make things right with her, but that's between the two of them. Whether he avoids this kind of activity in the future remains to be seen. I think he will, but that's because I think he's learned a harsh lesson about being in the spotlight--it tends to be a harsh place to be. The rest of this really isn't about Corey and Heather anymore, so as far as I'm concerned, that thread complete.

You misunderstand the nature of "craftsmanship". Actually, no, I don't. At its heart, the original intent of "craftsmanship" was a constant striving to be better about what you do, and taking pride in the things that you do. It's related to the Japanese code of the samurai (kaizen) that says, in essence, that we are constantly striving to get better. The samurai sought to become better swordsmen, constantly challenging each other to prove the mettle against one another, improving their skills and, conditioning, but also their honor, by how they treated each other, their lord, their servants, and those they sought to protect. Kanban is a wonderful code, and one I have tried to live my entire life, even before I'd discovered it. Please don't assume that I misunderstand the teachings of your movement just because I don't go to the meetings.

Why you pick on "craftsmanship", anyway? If I want to take pride in what I do, what difference does it make? This is me paraphrasing on much of the dissent, and my response boils down to two basic thoughts:

  1. If you think your movement is "just about yourself", why invent a label to differentiate yourself from the rest?
  2. If you invent a label, it becomes almost automatic to draw a line between "us" and "them", and that in of itself almost automatically leads to "us vs them" behavior and mentality.
Look, I view this whole thing as kind of like religion: whatever you want to do behind closed doors, that's your business. But when you start waving it in other peoples' faces, then I have a problem with it. You want to spend time on the weekends improving your skills, go for it. You want to spend time at night learning a bunch of programming languages so you can improve your code and your ability to design systems, go for it. You want to study psychology and philosophy so you can understand other people better when it comes time to interact with them, go for it. And hey, you want to put some code up somewhere so people can point to it and help you get it better, go for it. But when you start waving all that time and dedication in my face, you're either doing it because you want recognition, or you want to suggest that I'm somehow not as good as you. Live the virtuous life, don't brag about it.

There were some specific blogs and comments that I think deserve discusson, too:

Dave Thomas was kind enough to comment on my blog:

I remember the farmer comment :) I think I said 30%, but I stand by what I said. And it isn't really an elitist stance. Instead, I feel that programming is hard work. At the end of a day of coding, I'm tired. And so I believe that if you are asking someone to do programming, then it is in both your and their interest that they are doing something they enjoy. Because if they don't enjoy it, then they are truly just a laborer, working hard at something that has no meaning to them. And as you spend 8 hours a day, 5 days a week doing it, that seems like an awful waste of an intelligent person's life.
Sure, programming is hard. So is house painting. They're different kinds of exhaustion, but it's exhaustion all the same. But, frankly, if somebody has chosen to take up a job that they do just because it's a job, that's their choice, and not ours to criticize, in my opinion. (And I remember it as 50%, because I very clearly remember saying the "way to insult half the room" crack after it, but maybe I misheard you. I do know others also heard it at 50%, because an attendee or two came up to talk about it after the panel. At least, that's how I remember it at the time. But the number itself is kinda meaningless, now that I think about it.)
The farming quote was a deliberate attempt at being shocking to make a point. But I still think it is valid. I'd guess that 30% of the developers I meet are not happy in their work. And I think those folks would be happier and more fulfilled doing something else that gave them more satisfaction.
Again, you and I are both in agreement, that people should be doing what they love, but that's a personal judgment that each person is permitted to make for themselves. There are aspects of our lives that we don't love, but we do because they make other people happy (Juliet and Charlotte driving the boys around to their various activities comes to mind, for example), and it is not our position to judge how others choose for themselves, IMHO.
No one should have to be a laborer.
And here, you and I will disagree quite fundamentally: as I believe it was Martin Luther King, Jr, who said, "If you are going to be a janitor, be the best janitor you know how to be." It seems by that statement that you are saying that people who labor with their bodies rather than your minds (and trust me, you may not be a laborer anymore, big publishing magnate that you are, but I know I sure still am) are somehow less well-off than those who have other people working for them. Some people don't want the responsibility of being the boss, or the owner. See the story of the mexican fisherman at the end of this blog.

Nate commented:

You have a logical fallacy by lumping together the people that derided Heather's code and people that are involved in software craftmanship. It's actually a huge leap of logic to make that connection, and it really retracts from the article.
As I point out later, the people who derided Heather's code were some of the same folks who hold up software craftsmanship. That wasn't me making that up.

Now you realise that you are planting your flag firmly in the 'craftmanship' camp while propelling your position upwards by drawing a line in the sand to define another group of people as 'labourers'. Or in other words attempt to elevate yourself by patronising others with the position you think you are paying them a compliment. Maybe you do not realise this?
No, I realize it, and it's a fair critique, which is why I don't label myself as a "craftsman". I have more to say on this below.
However, have you considered that the craft is not how awesome and perfect you and your code are, but what is applicable for the task at hand. I think most people who you would put into either camp share the same mix of attributes whether good or bad. The important thing is if the solution created does what it is designed to do, is delivered on time for when it is needed and if the environment that the solution has been created for warrants it, that the code is easily understandable by yourself and others (that matter) so it can be developed further over time and maintained.
And the very people who call themselves "craftsmen" criticized a piece of code that, as near as I can tell, met all of those criteria. Hence my reaction that started this whole thing.
I don't wish to judge you, and maybe you are a great, smart guy who does good in the world, but like you I have not researched anything about you, I have simply read your assessment above and come to a conclusion, that's being human I guess.
Oh, people judge each other all the time, and it's high time we stopped beating them up for it. It's human to judge. And while it would be politically correct to say, "You shouldn't judge me before you know me", fact is, of course you're going to do exactly that, because you don't have time to get to know me. And the fact that you don't know me except but through the blog is totally acceptable--you shouldn't have to research me in order to have an opinion. So we're all square on that point. (As to whether I'm a great smart guy who does good in the world, well, that's for others to judge in my opinion, not mine.)
The above just sounds like more of the same 'elitism' that has been ripe in this world from playground to the workplace since the beginning.
It does, doesn't it? And hopefully I clarify the position more clearly later.

In It's OK to love your job, Chad McCallum says that

The basic premise (or at least the one the author start out with) is that because there’s a self-declared group of “software craftspeople”, there is going to be an egotistical divide between those who “get it” and those who don’t.
Like it or not, Chad, that egotistical divide is there. You can "call bullshit" all day long, but look at the reactions that have popped up over this--people feel that divide, and frankly, it's one that's been there for a long, long time. This isn't just me making this up.

Chad also says,

It’s true the feedback that Heather got was unnecessarily negative. And that it came from people who are probably considered “software craftspeople”. That said, correlation doesn’t equal causation. I’m guessing the negative feedback was more because those original offenders had a bad day and needed to vent. And maybe the comments after that one just jumped on the bandwagon because someone with lots of followers and/or respect said it.

These are both things that can and have happened to anyone, regardless of the industry they work in. It’s extremely unfair to associate “someone who’s passionate about software development” to “person who’s waiting to jump on you for your mistakes”.

Unfortunately, Chad, the excuse that "others do it, too" is not an acceptable excuse. If everybody jumped off a cliff, would you do it, too? I understand the rationale--it's extremely hard being the one to go against the herd (I've got the psychological studies I can cite at you that prove it), but that doesn't make it OK or excuse it. Saying "it happens in other industries" is just an extension of that. In other industries, women are still explicitly discriminated against--does that make it OK for us to do that, too?

Chad closes his blog with "Stop calling us egotistical jerks just because we love what we do." To which I respond, "I am happy to do so, as soon as those 'craftsmen' who are acting like one, stop acting like one." If you're not acting like one, then there should be no argument here. If you're trying to tell me that your label is somehow immune to criticism, then I think we just have to agree to disagree.

Paul Pagel (on a site devoted to software craftsmanship, no less) responded as well with his Humble Pursuit of Mastery. He opens with:

I have been reading on blogs and tweets the sentiment that "software craftsmanship is elitism". This perception is formed around comments of code, process, or techniques. I understand a craftsman's earned sense of pride in their work can sometimes be inappropriately communicated.
I don't think I commented on code, process or technique, so I can't be sure if this is directly refuting what I'm saying, but I note that Paul has already touched on the meme he wants to communicate in his last phrase: the craftsman's "earned sense of pride". I have no problem with the work being something that you take pride in; I note, however, that "pride goeth before a fall", and note that, again, Ozymandias was justifiably proud of his accomplishments, too.

Paul then goes through a summation of his career, making sure to smallcaps certain terms with which I have no argument: "sacrifice", "listen", "practicing", "critique" and "teaching". And, in all honesty, these are things that I embrace, as well. But I start getting a little dubious about the sanctity of your terminology, Paul, when it's being used pretty blatantly as an advertising slogan and theme all over the site--if you want the term to remain a Zen-like pursuit, then you need to keep the commercialism out of it, in my opinion, or you invite the kind of criticism that's coming here (explicit or implicit).

Paul's conclusion wraps up with:

Do sacrificing, listening, practice, critiquing, and teaching sound like elitist qualities to you? Software craftsmanship starts out as a humble endeavor moving towards mastery. I won't let 140 or 1000 characters redefine the hours and years spent working hard to become a craftsman. It gave me humility and the confidence to be a professional software developer. Sometimes I let confidence get the better of me, but I know when that happens I am not honoring the spirit of craftsmanship which I was trained.
Humility enough to trademark your phrase "Software is our craft"? Humility enough to call yourself a "driving force" behind software craftsmanship? Don't get me wrong, Paul, there is a certain amount of commercialism that any consultant must adopt in order to survive--but either please don't mix your life-guiding principles with your commercialism, or else don't be surprised when others take aim at your "humility" when you do. It's the same when ministers stand in a multi-million dollar building on a Sunday morning and talk about the parable of the widow giving away her last two coppers--that smacks of hypocrisy.

Finally, Matt van Horn wrote in Crafsmanship, a rebuttal that:

there is an allusion to software craftsmen as being an exclusive group who agre on the “right” tools and techniques. This could not be further from the truth. Anyone who is serious about their craft knows that for every job there are some tools that are better and some that are worse.
... but then he goes right into making that exact mistake:
Now, I may not have a good definition of elegant code, but I definitely know it when I see it – regardless of who wrote it. If you can’t see that
(1..10).each{|i| puts i}

is more elegant than
x = 0
while true do
  x = x + 1
  if x > 10
    break
  end
  puts x
end
then you must near the beginning of your journey towards mastery. Practicing your craft develops your ability to recognize these differences, just as a skilled tailor can more easily spot the difference between a bespoke suit and something from Men’s Wearhouse.
Matt, you kind of make my point for me. What makes it elegant? You take it as self-evident. I don't. As a matter of fact, I've been asking this question for some years now, "What makes code 'elegant', as opposed to 'ugly'? Ironically, Elliott Rusty Harold just blogged about how this style of coding is dangerous in Java, and got crucified for it, but he has the point that functional style (your first example) doesn't JIT as well as the more imperative style right now on the JVM (or on the CLR, from what I can tell). Are you assuming that this will be running on a native Ruby implementation, on JRuby, IronRuby, ...? You have judged the code in the second example based on an intrinsic value system that you may have never questioned. To judge, you have to be able to explain your judgments in terms of the value system. And the fact that you judge without any context, kind of speaks directly to the point I was trying to make: "craftsmen", it seems, have this tendency to judge in absence of context, because they are clearly "further down their journey towards mastery", to use your own metaphor.

Or, to put it much more succinctly, "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder".

Matt then tells me I missed the point of the samurai and tea master story:

inally, he closes with a famous zen story, but he entirely misses the point of it. The story concerns a tea master, and a samurai, who get into a duel. The tea master prevails by bringing the same concentration to the duel that he brings to his tea ceremony. The point that Ted seems to miss here is that the tea master is a craftsman of the highest order. A master of cha-do (the way of tea) is able to transform the simple act of making and pouring a cup of tea into something transcendant by bringing to this simple act a clear mind, a good attitude, and years of patient, humble practice. Arguably he prevails because he has perfected his craft to a higher degree than the samurai has perfected his own. That is why he has earned the right to wear the garb of a samurai, and why he is able to face down his opponent.
Which, again, I find funny, because most Zen masters will tell you that the story--any Zen story, in fact--has no "definitive" meaning, but has meaning based on how you interpret it. (There are a few Zen parables that reinforce this point, but it gets a little meta to justify my understanding of a Zen story by quoting another Zen story.) How Matt chooses to interpret that parable is, of course, up to him. I choose to interpret the story thusly: the insulted samurai felt that his "earned sense of pride" at his sword mastery was insulted by the tea master--clearly no swordsman, as it says in the story--wore robes of a rank and honor that he had not earned. And clearly, the tea master was no swordsman. But what the tea master learned from his peer was not how to use his concentration and discipline to improve his own swordsmanship, but how to demonstrate that he had, in fact, earned a note of mastery through an entirely different discipline than the insulted samurai's. The tea master still has no mastery of the sword, but in his own domain, he is an expert. This was all the insulted samurai needed to see, that the badge of honor had been earned, and not just imposed by a capricious (and disrespectful) lord. Put a paintbrush and canvas into the hands of a house painter, and you get pretty much a mess--but put a spray painter in the hands of Leonardo, and you still get a mess. In fact, to really do the parable justice, we should see how much "craft" Matt can bring when asked to paint a house, because that's about how much relevance swordsmanship and house painting have in relationship to one another. (All analogies fail eventually, by the way, and we're probably reaching the boundaries of this one.)

Billy Hollis is a master with VB, far more than I ever will be; I know C++ far better than he ever will. I respect his abilities, and he, mine. There is no argument here. But more importantly, there are friends I've worked with in the past who are masters with neither VB nor C++, nor any other programming language, but chose instead to sink their time and energy into skiing, pottery, or being a fan of a television show. They chose to put their energies--energies the "craftsmen" seem to say should be put towards their programming--towards things that bring them joy, which happen to not be programming.

Which brings me to another refrain that came up over and over again: You criticize the craftsman, but then you draw a distinction between "craftsman" and "laborer". You're confusing (or confused). First of all, I think it important to disambiguate along two axes: those who are choosing to invest their time into learning to write better software, and those who are choosing to look at writing code as "just" a job as one axis, and along a second axis, the degree to which they have mastered programming. By your own definitions, "craftsmen", can one be early in your mastery of programming and still be a "craftsman"? Can one be a master bowler who's just picked up programming and be considered a "craftsman"? Is the nature of "craftsmanship" a measure of your skill, or is it your dedication to programming, or is it your dedication to something in your life, period? (Remember, the tea master parable says that a master C++ developer will see the master bowler and respect his mastery of bowling, even though he can't code worth a crap. Would you call him a "craftsman"?)

Frankly, I will say, for the record, that I think there are people programming who don't want to put a ton of time and energy into learning how to be better programmers. (I suspect that most of them won't ever read this blog, either.) They see the job as "just a job", and are willing to be taught how to do things, but aren't willing to go off and learn how to do them on their own. They want to do the best job they can, because they, like any human being, want to bring value to the world, but don't have that passion for programming. They want to come in at 9, do their job, and go home at 5. These are those whom I call "laborers". They are the "fisherman" in the following story:

The businessman was at the pier of a small coastal Mexican village when a small boat with just one fisherman docked. Inside the small boat were several large yellowfin tuna. The businessman complimented the Mexican on the quality of his fish and asked how long it took to catch them. The Mexican replied only a little while.

The businessman then asked why he didn't stay out longer and catch more fish? The Mexican said he had enough to support his family's immediate needs. The businessman then asked, but what do you do with the rest of your time? The Mexican fisherman said, "I sleep late, fish a little, play with my children, take a siesta with my wife, Maria, stroll into the village each evening where I sip wine and play guitar with my amigos; I have a full and busy life, señor."

The businessman scoffed, "I am a Harvard MBA and I could help you. You should spend more time fishing and with the proceeds buy a bigger boat. With the proceeds from the bigger boat you could buy several boats; eventually you would have a fleet of fishing boats. Instead of selling your catch to a middleman, you would sell directly to the processor and eventually open your own cannery. You would control the product, processing and distribution. You would need to leave this small coastal fishing village and move to Mexico City, then LA and eventually New York City where you would run your expanding enterprise."

The Mexican fisherman asked, "But señor, how long will this all take?" To which the businessman replied, "15-20 years." "But what then, señor?" The businessman laughed and said, "That's the best part! When the time is right you would announce an IPO and sell your company stock to the public and become very rich. You would make millions." "Millions, señor? Then what?" The businessman said, "Then you would retire. Move to a small coastal fishing village where you would sleep late, fish a little, play with your kids, take a siesta with your wife, stroll to the village in the evenings where you could sip wine and play your guitar with your amigos."

What makes all of this (this particular subject, craftsmanship) particularly hard for me is that I like the message that craftsmanship brings, in terms of how you conduct yourself. I love the book Apprenticeship Patterns, for example, and think that anyone, novice or master, should read this book. I have taken on speaking apprentices in the past, and will continue to do so well into the future. The message that underlies the meme of craftsmanship--the constant striving to improve--is a good one, and I don't want to throw the baby out with the bathwater. If you have adopted "craftsmanship" as a core value of yours, then please, by all means, continue to practice it! Myself, I choose to do so, as well. I have mentored programmers, I have taken speaking apprentices, and I strive to learn more about my craft by branching my studies out well beyond software--I am reading books on management, psychology, building architecture, and business, because I think there is more to software than just the choice of programming language or style.

But be aware that if you start telling people how you're living your life, there is an implicit criticism or expectation that they should be doing that, as well. And when you start criticizing other peoples' code as being "unelegant" or "unbeautiful" or "unclean", you'd better be able to explain your value system and why you judged it as so. Humility is a hard, hard path to tread, and one that I have only recently started to see the outlines of; I am guilty of just about every sin imaginable when it comes to this subject. I have created "elegant" systems that failed their original intent. I have criticized "ugly" code that, in fact, served the purpose well. I have bragged of my own accomplishments to those who accomplished a lot more than I did, or ever will. And I consider it amazing to me that my friends who've been with me since long before I started to eat my justly-deserved humble pie are still with me. (And that those friends are some amazing people in their own right.; if a man is judged by the company he keeps, then by looking around at my friends, I am judged to be a king.) I will continue to strive to be better than I am now, though, even within this discussion right now: those of you who took criticism with my post, you have good points, all of you, and I certainly don't want to stop you from continuing on your journeys of self-discovery, either.

And if we ever cross paths in person, I will buy you a beer so that we can sit down, and we can continue this discussion in person.


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Friday, January 25, 2013 10:24:27 PM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
Comments [7]  | 
 Wednesday, January 23, 2013
On the Dark Side of "Craftsmanship"

I don't know Heather Arthur from Eve. Never met her, never read an article by her, seen a video she's in or shot, or seen her code. Matter of fact, I don't even know that she is a "she"--I'm just guessing from the name.

But apparently she got quite an ugly reaction from a few folks when she open-sourced some code:

So I went to see what people were saying about this project. I searched Twitter and several tweets came up. One of them, I guess the original one, was basically like “hey, this is cool”, but then the rest went like this:
"I cannot even make this stuff up." --@steveklabnik
"Ever wanted to make sed or grep worse?" --@zeeg
"@steveklabnik or just point to the actual code file. eyes bleeding!" --@coreyhaines
At this point, all I know is that by creating this project I’ve done something very wrong. It seemed liked I’d done something fundamentally wrong, so stupid that it flabbergasts someone. So wrong that it doesn’t even need to be explained. And my code is so bad it makes people’s eyes bleed. So of course I start sobbing.
Now, to be fair, Corey later apologized. But I'm still going to criticize the response. Not because Heather's a "she" and we should be more supportive of women in IT. Not because somebody took something they found interesting and put it up on github for anyone to take a look at and use if they found it useful. Not even because it's good code when they said it was bad code or vice versa. (To be honest, I haven't even looked at the code--that's how immaterial it is to my point.)

I'm criticizing because this is what "software craftsmanship" gets us: an imposed segregation of those who "get it" from those who "don't" based on somebody's arbitrary criteria of what we should or shouldn't be doing. And if somebody doesn't use the "right" tools or code it in the "right" way, then bam! You clearly aren't a "craftsman" (or "craftswoman"?) and you clearly don't care about your craft and you clearly aren't worth the time or energy necessary to support and nourish and grow and....

Frankly, I've not been a fan of this movement since its inception. Dave Thomas (Ruby Dave) was on a software panel with me at a No Fluff Just Stuff show about five years ago when we got on to this subject, and Dave said, point blank, "About half of the programmers in the world should just go take up farming." He paused, and in the moment that followed, I said, "Wow, Dave, way to insult half the room." He immediately pointed out that the people in the room were part of the first half, since they were at a conference, but it just sort of underscored to me how high-handed and high-minded that kind of talk and position can be.

Not all of us writing code have to be artists. Frankly, in the world of painting, there are those who will spend hours and days and months, tiny brushes in hand, jars of pigment just one lumens different from one another, laboring over the finest details, creating just one piece... and then there are those who paint houses with paint-sprayers, out of cans of mass-produced "Cream Beige" found at your local Lowes. And you know what? We need both of them.

I will now coin a term that I consider to be the opposite of "software craftsman": the "software laborer". In my younger days, believing myself to be one of those "craftsmen", a developer who knew C++ in and out, who understood memory management and pointers, who could create elegant and useful solutions in templates and classes and inheritance, I turned up my nose at those "laborers" who cranked out one crappy app after another in (what else?) Visual Basic. My app was tight, lean, and well-tuned; their apps were sloppy, bloated, and ugly. My app was a paragon of reused code; their apps were cut-and-paste cobbled-together duct-tape wonders. My app was a shining beacon on a hill for all the world to admire; their apps were mindless drones, slogging through the mud.... Yeah, OK, so you get the idea.

But the funny thing was, those "laborers" were going home at 5 every day. Me, I was staying sometimes until 9pm, wallowing in the wonderment of my code. And, I have to wonder, how much of that was actually not the wonderment of my code, but the wonderment of "me" over the wonderment of "code".

Speaking of, by the way, there appear to be the makings of another such false segregation, in the areas of "functional programming". In defense of Elliott Rusty Harold's blog the other day (which I criticized, and still stand behind, for the reasons I cited there), there are a lot of programmers that are falling into the trap of thinking that "all the cool kids are using functional programming, so if I want to be a cool kid, I have to use functional programming too, even though I'm not sure what I'm doing....". Not all the cool kids are using FP. Some aren't even using OOP. Some are just happily humming along using good ol' fashioned C. And producing some really quality stuff doing so.

See, I have to wonder just how much of the software "craftsmanship" being touted isn't really a narcissistic "Look at me, world! Look at how much better I am because I care about what I do! Look upon my works, ye mighty, and despair!" kind of mentality. Too much of software "craftsmanship" seems to be about the "me" part of "my code". And when I think about why that is, I come to an interesting assertion: That if we take the name away from the code, and just look at the code, we can't really tell what's "elegant" code, what's "hack" code, and what was "elegant hack because there were all these other surrounding constraints outside the code". Without the context, we can't tell.

A few years after my high point as a C++ "craftsman", I was asked to do a short, one-week programming gig/assignment, and the more I looked at it, the more it screamed "VB" at me. And I discovered that what would've taken me probably a month to do in C++ was easily accomplished in a few days in VB. I remember looking at the code, and feeling this sickening, sinking sense of despair at how stupid I must've looked, crowing. VB isn't a bad language--and neither is C++. Or Java. Or C#. Or Groovy, or Scala, or Python, or, heck, just about any language you choose to name. (Except Perl. I refuse to cave on that point. Mostly for comedic effect.)

But more importantly, somebody who comes in at 9, does what they're told, leaves at 5, and never gives a rat's ass about programming except for what they need to know to get their job done, I have respect for them. Yes, some people will want to hold themselves up as "painters", and others will just show up at your house at 8 in the morning with drop cloths. Both have their place in the world. Neither should be denigrated for their choices about how they live their lives or manage their careers. (Yes, there's a question of professional ethics--I want the house painters to make sure they do a good job, too, but quality can come just as easily from the nozzle of a spray painter as it does from the tip of a paintbrush.)

I end this with one of my favorite parables from Japanese lore:

Several centuries ago, a tea master worked in the service of Lord Yamanouchi. No-one else performed the way of the tea to such perfection. The timing and the grace of his every move, from the unfurling of mat, to the setting out of the cups, and the sifting of the green leaves, was beauty itself. His master was so pleased with his servant, that he bestowed upon him the rank and robes of a Samurai warrior.

When Lord Yamanouchi travelled, he always took his tea master with him, so that others could appreciate the perfection of his art. On one occasion, he went on business to the great city of Edo, which we now know as Tokyo.

When evening fell, the tea master and his friends set out to explore the pleasure district, known as the floating world. As they turned the corner of a wooden pavement, they found themselves face to face with two Samurai warriors.

The tea master bowed, and politely step into the gutter to let the fearsome ones pass. But although one warrior went by, the other remained rooted to the spot. He stroked a long black whisker that decorated his face, gnarled by the sun, and scarred by the sword. His eyes pierced through the tea maker’s heart like an arrow.

He did not quite know what to make of the fellow who dressed like a fellow Samurai, yet who would willingly step aside into a gutter. What kind of warrior was this? He looked him up and down. Where were broad shoulders and the thick neck of a man of force and muscle? Instinct told him that this was no soldier. He was an impostor who by ignorance or impudence had donned the uniform of a Samurai. He snarled: “Tell me, oh strange one, where are you from and what is your rank?”

The tea master bowed once more. “It is my honour to serve Lord Yamanouchi and I am his master of the way of the tea.”

“A tea-sprout who dares to wear the robes of Samurai?” exclaimed the rough warrior.

The tea master’s lip trembled. He pressed his hands together and said: “My lord has honoured me with the rank of a Samurai and he requires me to wear these robes. “

The warrior stamped the ground like a raging a bull and exclaimed: “He who wears the robes of a Samurai must fight like a Samurai. I challenge you to a duel. If you die with dignity, you will bring honour to your ancestors. And if you die like a dog, at least you will be no longer insult the rank of the Samurai !”

By now, the hairs on the tea master’s neck were standing on end like the feet of a helpless centipede that has been turned upside down. He imagined he could feel that edge of the Samurai blade against his skin. He thought that his last second on earth had come.

But the corner of the street was no place for a duel with honour. Death is a serious matter, and everything has to be arranged just so. The Samurai’s friend spoke to the tea master’s friends, and gave them the time and the place for the mortal contest.

When the fierce warriors had departed, the tea master’s friends fanned his face and treated his faint nerves with smelling salts. They steadied him as they took him into a nearby place of rest and refreshment. There they assured him that there was no need to fear for his life. Each one of them would give freely of money from his own purse, and they would collect a handsome enough sum to buy the warrior off and make him forget his desire to fight a duel. And if by chance the warrior was not satisfied with the bribe, then surely Lord Yamanouchi would give generously to save his much prized master of the way of the tea.

But these generous words brought no cheer to the tea master. He thought of his family, and his ancestors, and of Lord Yamanouchi himself, and he knew that he must not bring them any reason to be ashamed of him.

“No,” he said with a firmness that surprised his friends. “I have one day and one night to learn how to die with honour, and I will do so.”

And so speaking, he got up and returned alone to the court of Lord Yamanouchi. There he found his equal in rank, the master of fencing, he was skilled as no other in the art of fighting with a sword.

“Master,” he said, when he had explained his tale, “Teach me to die like a Samurai.”

But the master of fencing was a wise man, and he had a great respect for the master of the Tea ceremony. And so he said: “I will teach you all you require, but first, I ask that you perform the way of the Tea for me one last time.”

The tea master could not refuse this request. As he performed the ceremony, all trace of fear seemed to leave his face. He was serenely concentrated on the simple but beautiful cups and pots, and the delicate aroma of the leaves. There was no room in his mind for anxiety. His thoughts were focused on the ritual.

When the ceremony was complete, the fencing master slapped his thigh and exclaimed with pleasure : “There you have it. No need to learn anything of the way of death. Your state of mind when you perform the tea ceremony is all that is required. When you see your challenger tomorrow, imagine that you are about to serve tea for him. Salute him courteously, express regret that you could not meet him sooner, take of your coat and fold it as you did just now. Wrap your head in a silken scarf and and do it with the same serenity as you dress for the tea ritual. Draw your sword, and hold it high above your head. Then close your eyes and ready yourself for combat. “

And that is exactly what the tea master did when, the following morning, at the crack of dawn he met his opponent. The Samurai warrior had been expecting a quivering wreck and he was amazed by the tea master’s presence of mind as he prepared himself for combat. The Samurai’s eyes were opened and he saw a different man altogether. He thought he must have fallen victim to some kind of trick or deception ,and now it was he who feared for his life. The warrior bowed, asked to be excused for his rude behaviour, and left the place of combat with as much speed and dignity as he could muster.

(excerpted from http://storynory.com/2011/03/27/the-samurai-and-the-tea-master/)

My name is Ted Neward. And I bow with respect to the "software laborers" of the world, who churn out quality code without concern for "craftsmanship", because their lives are more than just their code.


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Wednesday, January 23, 2013 9:06:24 PM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
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 Monday, January 21, 2013
On Functional Programming in Java

Elliott Rusty Harold is blogging that functional programming in Java is dangerous. He's wrong, and he's way late to the party on this one--it's coming to Java whether he likes it or not.

Go read his post first, while I try to sum up the reasons he cites for saying it's dangerous:

  1. Java is not a lazy-evaluated language. Programmers in Java will screw up and create heap and stack errors as a result.
  2. See? Here's a naive implementation of Clojure code taken directly over to Java and look how it blows up.
  3. Programmers can do bad things with this idea, so therefore we should avoid it.
  4. Oh, and by the way, it's "dangerously inefficient" in Java/JVM, even though I offer no perf benchmarks or comparisons to back this statement, and I'm somehow ignoring that Clojure and Scala run on the JVM as well, apparently without problem.
That kind of about sums it up, I think.

Look, as Elliott points out, Java is not Haskell. Neither is it Lisp. It's its own language, rooted in imperative and object-oriented history, but no less able to incorporate functional features into its development than Lisp could incorporate object-oriented features. However, if you do stupid things, like trying to re-create an infinite (implicitly lazily-evaluated) list in Clojure by creating an actualized list that stretches to infinity... you're going to blow the JVM up. Duh. Not even the supercomputer on the USS Enterprise five hundred years from now will be able to construct that list.

Porting code from one language to another is not a trivial exercise. If you attempt to port line-for-line and expression-for-expression, you can expect that your ported code will not be idiomatically correct. (I know this already, having done the exercise myself.) The root of the problem in his ported code is twofold. One, he (rather foolishly and in elegant strawman fashion) badly simulates what an infinite list would look like in Java--a commenter does the better job by showing how an Iterator can be made to perform the same thing that Haskell actually does under the hood by producing the next value on demand, rather than trying to create a list of Integers stretching to infinity. For someone who professes to have some Haskell experience and love, it surprises me that Elliott makes this kind of mistake, which leads me to conclude that he's trying to create the strawman. Two, he assumes that anyone who programs in Java functionally will have to create all of their functional tools by hand, and frankly, using Guava or FJ here would make this code sample a LOT easier to swallow. The fact that he ignores both of these in his stawman again sort of reinforces the idea that he's deliberately crippling his strawman to make his point.

His underlying point, though, seems to be simple: "I work with bad programmers, who don't seem to understand how to write code functionally in Java without screwing it up." Dude. Sucks to be you. "Bad programmers will move heaven and earth to do the wrong thing." --Glenn Vanderburg.

What really sucks for him is that these features are coming in Java 8, including lambda expressions and library support including a Stream interface that will allow for exactly this kind of code to be written without pain. Those programmers Elliott is working with are going to be even more on fire to use their functional approaches (and all the associated goodness of doing so, including composability and what-not) in their Java code. What might make Elliott more happy is that at least they won't have written it; it'll all be written by guys much smarter than any of them.


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Monday, January 21, 2013 2:10:14 PM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
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 Monday, January 07, 2013
Modifications to the Tech 2013 Predictions

I just added this to my Tech 2013 Predictions; I think they're important enough to re-post here as new content too:

  • Hardware is the new platform. A buddy of mine (Scott Davis) pointed out on a mailing list we share that "hardware is the new platform", and with Microsoft's Surface out now, there's three major players (Apple, Google, Microsoft) in this game. It's becoming apparent that more and more companies are starting to see opportunities in going the Apple route of owning not just the OS and the store, but the hardware underneath it. More and more companies are going to start playing this game, too, I think, and we're going to see Amazon take some shots here, and probably a few others. Of course, already announced is the Ubuntu Phone, and a new Android-like player, Tizen, but I'm not thinking about new players--there's always new players--but about some of the big standouts. And look for companies like Dell and HP to start looking for ways to play in this game, too, either through partnerships or acquisitions. (Hello, Oracle, I'm looking at you.... And Adobe, too.)
  • APIs for lots of things are going to come out. Ford just did this. This is not going away--this is going to proliferate. And the startup community is going to lap it up like kittens attacking a bowl of cream. If you're looking for a play in the startup world, pursue this.




Monday, January 07, 2013 7:04:13 PM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
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Thoughts on a CodeMash Gone By

A year ago today (roughly), I gave the opening keynote at CodeMash 2.0.1.2. For those of you who were there, I don't think I need to tell you what happened. For those of you who weren't there, you probably still heard about, thanks to the Twitterstream of comments and counter-comments that followed. I've more or less tried to keep quiet about it since that time, trying to just let the furor die down (and it did, pretty quickly, I thought) out of respect to the conference organizers.

But with the show starting up again this week, and there having been a few people over the last twelve months who've asked me about "what the f*ck were you thinking" (whether that was in deliberate pun/jest or not, I can't always tell), and most importantly, now that I know that Jim and I are square with each other (thanks to a Twitter conversation a few days ago), I figure it's time to come clean and tell my side of the story.

TL;DR: If I had the chance to do the keynote over again, I'd do it differently.

(By the way, the rest of this post does have a few profanities in it, so if you're offended by that sort of thing, this is a good place to stop reading. Or, as the movies would say, this post is rated PG-13 for adult language.)

As a speaker, I have always sought to create a "persona" on stage that allowed me the maximum freedom of expression and opportunity to get my point across. A long time ago, when I started teaching at DevelopMentor, I learned from some of the best--one of those best being, of course, Don Box, but another of those was Ted Pattison. It was he who taught me that "If you can make 'em laugh, you can do whatever you want to them" (meaning the audience). He demonstrated this quite graphically by guest-lecturing in one of my classes once, early in my tenure as a DM instructor, and promptly castrated one of the students who was constantly irritating the class (and me) with off-topic questions. It was an eye-opening experience. Later, Don mentioned in passing that what we did was "equal parts education and entertainment". Education because, yes, it's what we do, but entertainment, too, because if the room falls asleep, then they're not getting educated.

And folks, I've sat in those chairs, I know how boring talks can be sometimes. And that sometimes, despite your best efforts, no matter how interesting the material, it can just be sooooo easy to pop open the laptop and do some email. Or write some code. Or even let the ambient warmth of the room in a post-lunch talk just... make... eyes... so heavy.... I get it, really.

So I decided, quite consciously, to develop a speaking persona that was a little on the edge, a little outrageous, a little "over the top", because then that persona gave me the freedom to do some of the crazy things that would keep the crowd awake and on its toes. I stand people up from the audience and use them in my demos. I write code on the fly based on their questions, and I try to use examples that allow for a certain amount of "Wow, that was weird, so I'll remember it better" in the demo itself. Case in point: when writing code to demonstrate delegates and events in C#, I would use the idea of a "Rock Band" and its fan club which, of course, must include groupies.

Is it politically correct to talk about groupies in a professional programming classroom setting? Probably not. Did anybody complain? Never heard one, directly or indirectly. Part of that, I believe, was because they got the point of the demo, and that was the point. Not that I was advocating groupie-ism, or that rock bands were more interesting than programming, but that the domain was easy enough to grip in their heads, and that made the result (loose coupling between event generators and consumers, in the case of delegates and events) more easily understood.

Analogies, for me, are never gratuitous. I choose my analogies quite carefully, and try to be very clear about where and when they do break down, because all analogies break down eventually. Even my most famous analogy breaks down, as many people have pointed out: nobody has ever died from O/R-Ms. Yep. But your wife's eyes were never burning balls of superheated plasma billions of light years away, either.

Point is, I deliberately seek ways to keep you entertained. And you know what? Entertainment often comes, in the case, from making the room laugh, and humor most often derives from the unexpected. And what's more unexpected than a profanity dropped at the most unexpected moment?

You don't have to agree with that sentiment to realize that it's FUCKING true.

When I got up to speak at CodeMash, I wanted very badly for this to be the best damn keynote I'd ever done in my life up to that point. I wanted the room to rock. Buzzing. Yes, I wanted to succeed very, very badly. It was an early-morning keynote, first one of the show. People were still milling around, there was a lot of background noise. People were still eating breakfast and waking up. And when Keith Elder, just before he introduced me to the crowd, whispered (I'm paraphrasing here) "Put some energy into this crowd, would ya?", I said to myself, "Oh, yeah. I'm on it."

A little TOO on it, as it turns out. I went way overboard. Brian Prince counted 18 f-bombs that day. Others counted, as well; lowest total I heard was 13, highest was 23. Needless to say, it was a carpet bombing to rival anything we ever did to North Vietnam. Made Dresden look like a weenie roast. (There's probably a Hiroshima joke in there too somewhere, but you get the point.)

The interesting thing about profanity used like that, however, is that it loses its efficacy. They have to be spaced out, chosen carefully, or they lose their impact. Which was, of course, exactly what happened. It's not going to have the 'unexpected' effect if it's coming every other minute or so. No matter how hard you try.

The result? Kind of predictable. Not my best results. For which I am most heartily sorry. I so wanted that keynote to go off so well, and it didn't, and I'm sorry.

For three hours after the keynote was over, as the Twitterstream was dissecting me for all that, I lay on the couch in my hotel room, bordering on tears. Seriously.

Had I the chance to do the keynote over again, you'd better damn well believe that I'd do it differently. Would I cut out all the profanity entirely? Nope. That's a part of my speaking persona, and anyone who brings me to a conference that doesn't know that probably didn't do their homework about me as a speaker beforehand. (It's not like there aren't ample opportunities to see me speaking in person, or videos of the same.) But somebody suggested not too long ago that maybe it wouldn't be a bad idea to warn people ahead of time, and yep, that's a great idea. Because (and for this, I am really even more sorry) sometimes kids are in the room, such as was the case for CodeMash, and they shouldn't have to hear it unless their parents are OK with it, and I didn't give their parents (or any attendees that felt the same way) an opportunity to "opt out" if they so chose.

I could, I suppose, hide behind the excuse that "We were all adults, we should be able to handle that kind of language", but in the case of the kids, that wasn't the case. Even then, in the case of the adults, you still should be given an opportunity to opt out.

More critically, if the message got lost because of the messenger's choice of words, then I failed as a speaker. And that, my friends, is where the real frustration for me lies--not with the words I used in of themselves, but in that the message--that we as an industry have to break out of our 'box-arrow-box-arrow-cylinder' habits and modes of thinking--got lost for so many people, That is how I failed most of all, and it is on those grounds that I say, once again, I am sorry.

To you, Jim, and to the rest of the CodeMash staff, I am particularly sorry. CodeMash is your baby, and I gave it a black eye.

To the attendees of CodeMash 2.0.1.2, I am sorry if my language offended you and distracted you from the message I was trying to deliver. I hope that you were able to get past it and enjoy the rest of the show. I think a lot of you did--many came up to me afterwards, but it was such a small fraction of the total I don't want to assume anything.

Enjoy CodeMash 2.0.1.3. With any luck, I'll see you there next year: hopefully a little wiser, but still just as FUCKING outrageous as I have always been, only this time, with an up-front disclaimer.

Flame away.


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Monday, January 07, 2013 3:23:42 PM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
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 Saturday, January 05, 2013
Review (in advance): F# Deep Dives

F# Deep Dives, by Tomas Petricek and Phillip Trelford, Manning Publications

As many readers of my writing will already know, I've been kind of "involved" with F# (and its cousin on the JVM, Scala) for a few years now, to the degree that I and a couple of really smart guys wrote a book on the subject. Now, assuming you're one of the .NET developers who've heard of F# and functional programming, and took a gander at the syntax, and maybe even bought a book on it (my publisher and I both thank you if you bought ours), but weren't quite sure what to do with it, a book has come along to help get you past that.

As of this writing, the early-access (what Manning calls their MEAP) version had only Chapters 3 ("Parsing text-based languages") and Chapter 11 ("Creating games using XNA"), but the other topics ("Integrating external data into the F# language", "Handling dirty data with machine learning" and "Functional programming in the cloud" are just three of the other chapters listed) are juicy and meaty, and both Tomas and Philip are recognized names in the F# space. Neither are strangers to the subject material nor to writing, and the prose from the MEAP edition is pretty easy to read already, despite the fact that it's early-access material. In particular, the Markdown parser they implement in chapter 3 is a great example of a non-trivial language parser, which is not an easy task to approach but certainly a lot easier to do in a functional language. (For the record, I built a custom parser of my own for generating slides, and the blog entries that described the early implementations are here, and yes, I really should finish that series out, I know. I got more interested in extending the system, then realized I needed a full-fledged parser, and got distracted trying to integrate... surprise, surprise... Tomas' Markdown parser that he made available online.)

This book looks really promising, and I'm really hopeful Manning will send me a copy when it comes out, so I can level up my F# myself.


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Saturday, January 05, 2013 2:10:05 AM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
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Review: Metaprogramming in .NET

Metaprogramming in .NET, by Kevin Hazzard and Jason Bock, Manning Publications

TL;DR: This is a great book (not perfect), but not an easy read for everyone, not because the writing is bad, but because the subject is a whole new level of abstraction above what most developers deal with.

Full disclosure: Manning Publications is a publisher I've published with before, and Kevin and Jason are both friends of mine in the .NET community. I write a column for MSDN Magazine, and metaprogramming was one of the topics in one of the series I've written ("Metaparadigmatic Programming") for the column, so this subject is not unfamiliar to me.

Kevin and Jason have done a great job covering a pretty diverse subject, in my opinion. Because metaprogramming is "programming about programming", it's sometimes a hard concept for people who've never really investigated it to wrap their heads around, but Kevin and Jason do a great job opening with some concepts first, then exploring .NET Reflection, which is most developers' first introduction to metaprogramming. If you can understand how Reflection is programming against code and code metadata, then you're in a good place to start exploring metaprogramming in further depth.

And explore it they do. From code generation with T4, CodeDOM and Reflection.Emit to code-level Expressions to low-level IL munging, they take you through a lot of the metaprogramming tools. They've also tried to include some practical places where these techniques are useful, though I do wish the examples had been a bit "larger", meaning they were integrated into the larger picture of a "real-world" system, but that's hard to do sometimes, and most readers sufficiently senior enough to read this book should be able to see how to apply them to their own problems. I also wish they'd approached generics a bit more thoroughly, since that's another metaprogrammatic technique that often doesn't get much love from developers (most of whom seem to view generics as a necessary evil, not a huge opportunity for design power), but maybe that would've been too much head-exploding for one book. Writing a LINQ provider would've been a good enhancement to the book, but again, that may have been a little too much for one book. I also wish they had put an IL overview into its own chapter, since it comes up in several chapters at once and would've been good as a reference, but there's books out there on IL, which hasn't changed much since .NET 2.0 days, so readers finding IL challenging should pick up one of those if they're finding their heads spinning a little on the IL syntax.

Having taken you through those techniques, though, they then take a different tack and take you through scripting languages and the Microsoft Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR), as well as into a few "alternative" languages for the CLR, which is an entirely different way of approaching metaprogrammatic techniques. Nemerle, for example, is a language that supports macros defined within the language, a technique that generally is limited to Lisps. (I admit it, Nemerle is one of my favorite CLR languages, and should be something every .NET developer plays with for at least a weekend.) They also include the first published coverage that I'm aware of on Roslyn, the Compiler-as-a-Service project under way at Microsoft, so readers intrigued by how they might use the compiler as part of their development efforts in v.Next of Visual Studio should definitely have a look.

Overall, the writing style is crisp, clean, not too academic but not too folksy, and entirely representative of two men I've been privileged to meet, have interesting technical conversations with, and have over to my house for dinner. Both are extremely approachable, and their text reflects this. Every .NET developer that wants to claim "senior" or "guru" level status should read this book and experiment with one or more of these techniques; these are the things that the "cool kids" in the .NET world know how to do, and if you want to hang with the best, this is the book you'll read cover to cover.

(This review was posted to Amazon at the above link on 5 Jan 2013, then copy-and-pasted here because I like posting reviews to my blog as well as to Amazon.)


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Saturday, January 05, 2013 1:54:53 AM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
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 Tuesday, January 01, 2013
Tech Predictions, 2013

Once again, it's time for my annual prognostication and review of last year's efforts. For those of you who've been long-time readers, you know what this means, but for those two or three of you who haven't seen this before, let's set the rules: if I got a prediction right from last year, you take a drink, and if I didn't, you take a drink. (Best. Drinking game. EVAR!)

Let's begin....

Recap: 2012 Predictions

THEN: Lisps will be the languages to watch.

With Clojure leading the way, Lisps (that is, languages that are more or less loosely based on Common Lisp or one of its variants) are slowly clawing their way back into the limelight. Lisps are both functional languages as well as dynamic languages, which gives them a significant reason for interest. Clojure runs on top of the JVM, which makes it highly interoperable with other JVM languages/systems, and Clojure/CLR is the version of Clojure for the CLR platform, though there seems to be less interest in it in the .NET world (which is a mistake, if you ask me).

NOW: Clojure is definitely cementing itself as a "critic's darling" of a language among the digital cognoscenti, but I don't see its uptake increasing--or decreasing. It seems that, like so many critic's darlings, those who like it are using it, and those who aren't have either never heard of it (the far more likely scenario) or don't care for it. Datomic, a NoSQL written by the creator of Clojure (Rich Hickey), is interesting, but I've not heard of many folks taking it up, either. And Clojure/CLR is all but dead, it seems. I score myself a "0" on this one.

THEN: Functional languages will....

I have no idea. As I said above, I'm kind of stymied on the whole functional-language thing and their future. I keep thinking they will either "take off" or "drop off", and they keep tacking to the middle, doing neither, just sort of hanging in there as a concept for programmers to take and run with. Mind you, I like functional languages, and I want to see them become mainstream, or at least more so, but I keep wondering if the mainstream programming public is ready to accept the ideas and concepts hiding therein. So this year, let's try something different: I predict that they will remain exactly where they are, neither "done" nor "accepted", but continue next year to sort of hang out in the middle.

NOW: Functional concepts are slowly making their way into the mainstream of programming topics, but in some cases, programmers seem to be picking-and-choosing which of the functional concepts they believe in. I've heard developers argue vehemently about "lazy values" but go "meh" about lack-of-side-effects, or vice versa. Moreover, it seems that developers are still taking an "object-first, functional-when-I-need-it" kind of approach, which seems a little object-heavy, if you ask me. So, since the concepts seem to be taking some sort of shallow root, I don't know that I get the point for this one, but at the same time, it's not like I was wildly off. So, let's say "0" again.

THEN: F#'s type providers will show up in C# v.Next.

This one is actually a "gimme", if you look across the history of F# and C#: for almost every version of F# v."N", features from that version show up in C# v."N+1". More importantly, F# 3.0's type provider feature is an amazing idea, and one that I think will open up language research in some very interesting ways. (Not sure what F#'s type providers are or what they'll do for you? Check out Don Syme's talk on it at BUILD last year.)

NOW: C# v.Next hasn't been announced yet, so I can't say that this one has come true. We should start hearing some vague rumors out of Redmond soon, though, so maybe 2013 will be the year that C# gets type providers (or some scaled-back version thereof). Again, a "0".

THEN: Windows8 will generate a lot of chatter.

As 2012 progresses, Microsoft will try to force a lot of buzz around it by keeping things under wraps until various points in the year that feel strategic (TechEd, BUILD, etc). In doing so, though, they will annoy a number of people by not talking about them more openly or transparently.

NOW: Oh, my, did they. Windows8 was announced with a bang, but Microsoft (and Sinofsky, who ran the OS division up until recently) decided that they could go it alone and leave critical partners (like Dropbox!) out of the loop entirely. As a result, the Windows8 Store didn't have a lot of apps in it that people (including myself) really expected would be there. And THEN, there was Surface... which took everybody by surprise, as near as I can tell. Totally under wraps. I'm scoring myself "+2" for that one.

THEN: Windows8 ("Metro")-style apps won't impress at first.

The more I think about it, the more I'm becoming convinced that Metro-style apps on a desktop machine are going to collectively underwhelm. The UI simply isn't designed for keyboard-and-mouse kinds of interaction, and that's going to be the hardware setup that most people first experience Windows8 on--contrary to what (I think) Microsoft thinks, people do not just have tablets laying around waiting for Windows 8 to be installed on it, nor are they going to buy a Windows8 tablet just to try it out, at least not until it's gathered some mojo behind it. Microsoft is going to have to finesse the messaging here very, very finely, and that's not something they've shown themselves to be particularly good at over the last half-decade.

NOW: I find myself somewhat at a loss how to score this one--on the one hand, the "used-to-be-called-Metro"-style applications aren't terrible, and I haven't really heard anyone complain about them tremendously, but at the same time, I haven't heard anyone really go wild and ga-ga over them, either. Part of that, I think, is because there just aren't a lot of apps out there for it yet, aside from a rather skimpy selection of games (compared to the iOS App Store and Android Play Store). Again, I think Microsoft really screwed themselves with this one--keeping it all under wraps helped them make a big "Oh, WOW" kind of event buzz within the conference hall when they announced Surface, for example, but that buzz sort of left the room (figuratively) when people started looking for their favorite apps so they could start using that device. (Which, by the way, isn't a bad piece of hardware, I'm finding.) I'll give myself a "+1" for this.

THEN: Scala will get bigger, thanks to Heroku.

With the adoption of Scala and Play for their Java apps, Heroku is going to make Scala look attractive as a development platform, and the adoption of Play by Typesafe (the same people who brought you Akka) means that these four--Heroku, Scala, Play and Akka--will combine into a very compelling and interesting platform. I'm looking forward to seeing what comes of that.

NOW: We're going to get to cloud in a second, but on the whole, Heroku is now starting to make Scala/Play attractive, arguably as attractive as Ruby/Rails is. Play 2.0 unfortunately is not backwards-compatible with Play 1.x modules, which hurts it, but hopefully the Play community brings that back up to speed fairly quickly. "+1"

THEN: Cloud will continue to whip up a lot of air.

For all the hype and money spent on it, it doesn't really seem like cloud is gathering commensurate amounts of traction, across all the various cloud providers with the possible exception of Amazon's cloud system. But, as the different cloud platforms start to diversify their platform technology (Microsoft seems to be leading the way here, ironically, with the introduction of Java, Hadoop and some limited NoSQL bits into their Azure offerings), and as we start to get more experience with the pricing and costs of cloud, 2012 might be the year that we start to see mainstream cloud adoption, beyond "just" the usage patterns we've seen so far (as a backing server for mobile apps and as an easy way to spin up startups).

NOW: It's been whipping up air, all right, but it's starting to look like tornadoes and hurricanes--the talk of 2012 seems to have been more around notable cloud outages instead of notable cloud successes, capped off by a nationwide Netflix outage on Christmas Eve that seemed to dominate my Facebook feed that night. Later analysis suggested that the outage was with Amazon's AWS cloud, on which Netflix resides, and boy, did that make a few heads spin. I suspect we haven't yet (as of this writing) seen the last of that discussion. Overall, it seems like lots of startups and other greenfield apps are being deployed to the cloud, but it seems like corporations are hesitating to pull the trigger on an "all-in" kind of cloud adoption, because of some of the fears surrounding cloud security and now (of all things) robustness. "+1"

THEN: Android tablets will start to gain momentum.

Amazon's Kindle Fire has hit the market strong, definitely better than any other Android-based tablet before it. The Nooq (the Kindle's principal competitor, at least in the e-reader world) is also an Android tablet, which means that right now, consumers can get into the Android tablet world for far, far less than what an iPad costs. Apple rumors suggest that they may have a 7" form factor tablet that will price competitively (in the $200/$300 range), but that's just rumor right now, and Apple has never shown an interest in that form factor, which means the 7" world will remain exclusively Android's (at least for now), and that's a nice form factor for a lot of things. This translates well into more sales of Android tablets in general, I think.

NOW: Google's Nexus 7 came to dominate the discussion of the 7" tablet, until...

THEN: Apple will release an iPad 3, and it will be "more of the same".

Trying to predict Apple is generally a lost cause, particularly when it comes to their vaunted iOS lines, but somewhere around the middle of the year would be ripe for a new iPad, at the very least. (With the iPhone 4S out a few months ago, it's hard to imagine they'd cannibalize those sales by releasing a new iPhone, until the end of the year at the earliest.) Frankly, though, I don't expect the iPad 3 to be all that big of a boost, just a faster processor, more storage, and probably about the same size. Probably the only thing I'd want added to the iPad would be a USB port, but that conflicts with the Apple desire to present the iPad as a "device", rather than as a "computer". (USB ports smack of "computers", not self-contained "devices".)

NOW: ... the iPad Mini. Which, I'd like to point out, is just an iPad in a 7" form factor. (Actually, I think it's a little bit bigger than most 7" tablets--it looks to be a smidge wider than the other 7" tablets I have.) And the "new iPad" (not the iPad 3, which I call a massive FAIL on the part of Apple marketing) is exactly that: same iPad, just faster. And still no USB port on either the iPad or iPad Mini. So between this one and the previous one, I score myself at "+3" across both.

THEN: Apple will get hauled in front of the US government for... something.

Apple's recent foray in the legal world, effectively informing Samsung that they can't make square phones and offering advice as to what will avoid future litigation, smacks of such hubris and arrogance, it makes Microsoft look like a Pollyanna Pushover by comparison. It is pretty much a given, it seems to me, that a confrontation in the legal halls is not far removed, either with the US or with the EU, over anti-cometitive behavior. (And if this kind of behavior continues, and there is no legal action, it'll be pretty apparent that Apple has a pretty good set of US Congressmen and Senators in their pocket, something they probably learned from watching Microsoft and IBM slug it out rather than just buy them off.)

NOW: Congress has started to take a serious look at the patent system and how it's being used by patent trolls (of which, folks, I include Apple these days) to stifle innovation and create this Byzantine system of cross-patent licensing that only benefits the big players, which was exactly what the patent system was designed to avoid. (Patents were supposed to be a way to allow inventors, who are often independents, to avoid getting crushed by bigger, established, well-monetized firms.) Apple hasn't been put squarely in the crosshairs, but the Economist's article on Apple, Google, Microsoft and Amazon in the Dec 11th issue definitely points out that all four are squarely in the sights of governments on both sides of the Atlantic. Still, no points for me.

THEN: IBM will be entirely irrelevant again.

Look, IBM's main contribution to the Java world is/was Eclipse, and to a much lesser degree, Harmony. With Eclipse more or less "done" (aside from all the work on plugins being done by third parties), and with IBM abandoning Harmony in favor of OpenJDK, IBM more or less removes themselves from the game, as far as developers are concerned. Which shouldn't really be surprising--they've been more or less irrelevant pretty much ever since the mid-2000s or so.

NOW: IBM who? Wait, didn't they used to make a really kick-ass laptop, back when we liked using laptops? "+1"

THEN: Oracle will "screw it up" at least once.

Right now, the Java community is poised, like a starving vulture, waiting for Oracle to do something else that demonstrates and befits their Evil Emperor status. The community has already been quick (far too quick, if you ask me) to highlight Oracle's supposed missteps, such as the JVM-crashing bug (which has already been fixed in the _u1 release of Java7, which garnered no attention from the various Java news sites) and the debacle around Hudson/Jenkins/whatever-the-heck-we-need-to-call-it-this-week. I'll grant you, the Hudson/Jenkins debacle was deserving of ire, but Oracle is hardly the Evil Emperor the community makes them out to be--at least, so far. (I'll admit it, though, I'm a touch biased, both because Brian Goetz is a friend of mine and because Oracle TechNet has asked me to write a column for them next year. Still, in the spirit of "innocent until proven guilty"....)

NOW: It is with great pleasure that I score myself a "0" here. Oracle's been pretty good about things, sticking with the OpenJDK approach to developing software and talking very openly about what they're trying to do with Java8. They're not entirely innocent, mind you--the fact that a Java install tries to monkey with my browser bar by installing some plugin or other and so on is not something I really appreciate--but they're not acting like Ming the Merciless, either. Matter of fact, they even seem to be going out of their way to be community-inclusive, in some circles. I give myself a "-1" here, and I'm happy to claim it. Good job, guys.

THEN: VMWare/SpringSource will start pushing their cloud solution in a major way.

Companies like Microsoft and Google are pushing cloud solutions because Software-as-a-Service is a reoccurring revenue model, generating revenue even in years when the product hasn't incremented. VMWare, being a product company, is in the same boat--the only time they make money is when they sell a new copy of their product, unless they can start pushing their virtualization story onto hardware on behalf of clients--a.k.a. "the cloud". With SpringSource as the software stack, VMWare has a more-or-less complete cloud play, so it's surprising that they didn't push it harder in 2011; I suspect they'll start cramming it down everybody's throats in 2012. Expect to see Rod Johnson talking a lot about the cloud as a result.

NOW: Again, I give myself a "-1" here, and frankly, I'm shocked to be doing it. I really thought this one was a no-brainer. CloudFoundry seemed like a pretty straightforward play, and VMWare already owned a significant share of the virtualization story, so.... And yet, I really haven't seen much by way of significant marketing, advertising, or developer outreach around their cloud story. It's much the same as what it was in 2011; it almost feels like the parent corporation (EMC) either doesn't "get" why they should push a cloud play, doesn't see it as worth the cost, or else doesn't care. Count me confused. "0"

THEN: JavaScript hype will continue to grow, and by years' end will be at near-backlash levels.

JavaScript (more properly known as ECMAScript, not that anyone seems to care but me) is gaining all kinds of steam as a mainstream development language (as opposed to just-a-browser language), particularly with the release of NodeJS. That hype will continue to escalate, and by the end of the year we may start to see a backlash against it. (Speaking personally, NodeJS is an interesting solution, but suggesting that it will replace your Tomcat or IIS server is a bit far-fetched; event-driven I/O is something both of those servers have been doing for years, and the rest of it is "just" a language discussion. We could pretty easily use JavaScript as the development language inside both servers, as Sun demonstrated years ago with their "Phobos" project--not that anybody really cared back then.)

NOW: JavaScript frameworks are exploding everywhere like fireworks at a Disney theme park. Douglas Crockford is getting more invites to conference keynote opportunities than James Gosling ever did. You can get a job if you know how to spell "NodeJS". And yet, I'm starting to hear the same kinds of rumblings about "how in the hell do we manage a 200K LOC codebase written in JavaScript" that I heard people gripe about Ruby/Rails a few years ago. If the backlash hasn't started, then it's right on the cusp. "+1"

THEN: NoSQL buzz will continue to grow, and by years' end will start to generate a backlash.

More and more companies are jumping into NoSQL-based solutions, and this trend will continue to accelerate, until some extremely public failure will start to generate a backlash against it. (This seems to be a pattern that shows up with a lot of technologies, so it seems entirely realistic that it'll happen here, too.) Mind you, I don't mean to suggest that the backlash will be factual or correct--usually these sorts of things come from misuing the tool, not from any intrinsic failure in it--but it'll generate some bad press.

NOW: Recently, I heard that NBC was thinking about starting up a new comedy series called "Everybody Hates Mongo", with Chris Rock narrating. And I think that's just the beginning--lots of companies, particularly startups, decided to run with a NoSQL solution before seriously contemplating how they were going to make up for the things that a NoSQL doesn't provide (like a schema, for a lot of these), and suddenly find themselves wishing they had spent a little more time thinking about that back in the early days. Again, if the backlash isn't already started, it's about to. "+1"

THEN: Ted will thoroughly rock the house during his CodeMash keynote.

Yeah, OK, that's more of a fervent wish than a prediction, but hey, keep a positive attitude and all that, right?

NOW: Welllll..... Looking back at it with almost a years' worth of distance, I can freely admit I dropped a few too many "F"-bombs (a buddy of mine counted 18), but aside from a (very) vocal minority, my takeaway is that a lot of people enjoyed it. Still, I do wish I'd throttled it back some--InfoQ recorded it, and the fact that it hasn't yet seen public posting on the website implies (to me) that they found it too much work to "bleep" out all the naughty words. Which I call "my bad" on, because I think they were really hoping to use that as part of their promotional activities (not that they needed it, selling out again in minutes). To all those who found it distasteful, I apologize, and to those who chafe at the fact that I'm apologizing, I apologize. I take a "-1" here.

2013 Predictions:

Having thus scored myself at a "9" (out of 17) for last year, let's take a stab at a few for next year:

  • "Big data" and "data analytics" will dominate the enterprise landscape. I'm actually pretty late to the ballgame to talk about this one, in fact--it was starting its rapid climb up the hype wave already this year. And, part and parcel with going up this end of the hype wave this quickly, it also stands to reason that companies will start marketing the hell out of the term "big data" without being entirely too precise about what they mean when they say "big data".... By the end of the year, people will start building services and/or products on top of Hadoop, which appears primed to be the "Big Data" platform of choice, thus far.
  • NoSQL buzz will start to diversify. The various "NoSQL" vendors are going to start wanting to differentiate themselves from each other, and will start using "NoSQL" in their marketing and advertising talking points less and less. Some of this will be because Pandora's Box on data storage has already been opened--nobody's just assuming a relational database all the time, every time, anymore--but some of this will be because the different NoSQL vendors, who are at different stages in the adoption curve, will want to differentiate themselves from the vendors that are taking on the backlash. I predict Mongo, who seems to be leading the way of the NoSQL vendors, will be the sacrificial scapegoat for a lot of the NoSQL backlash that's coming down the pike.
  • Desktops increasingly become niche products. Look, does anyone buy a desktop machine anymore? I have three sitting next to me in my office, and none of the three has been turned on in probably two years--I'm exclusively laptop-bound these days. Between tablets as consumption devices (slowly obsoleting the laptop), and cloud offerings becoming more and more varied (slowly obsoleting the server), there's just no room for companies that sell desktops--or the various Mom-and-Pop shops that put them together for you. In fact, I'm starting to wonder if all those parts I used to buy at Fry's Electronics and swap meets will start to disappear, too. Gamers keep desktops alive, and I don't know if there's enough money in that world to keep lots of those vendors alive. (I hope so, but I don't know for sure.)
  • Home servers will start to grow in interest. This may seem paradoxical to the previous point, but I think techno-geek leader-types are going to start looking into "servers-in-a-box" that they can set up at home and have all their devices sync to and store to. Sure, all the media will come through there, and the key here will be "turnkey", since most folks are getting used to machines that "just work". Lots of friends, for example, seem to be using Mac Minis for exactly this purpose, and there's a vendor here in Redmond that sells a ridiculously-powered server in a box for a couple thousand. (This is on my birthday list, right after I get my maxed-out 13" MacBook Air and iPad 3.) This is also going to be fueled by...
  • Private cloud is going to start getting hot. The great advantage of cloud is that you don't have to have an IT department; the great disadvantage of cloud is that when things go bad, you don't have an IT department. Too many well-publicized cloud failures are going to drive corporations to try and find a solution that is the best-of-both-worlds: the flexibility and resiliency of cloud provisioning, but staffed by IT resources they can whip and threaten and cajole when things fail. (And, by the way, I fully understand that most cloud providers have better uptimes than most private IT organizations--this is about perception and control and the feelings of powerlessness and helplessness when things go south, not reality.)
  • Oracle will release Java8, and while several Java pundits will decry "it's not the Java I love!", most will actually come to like it. Let's be blunt, Java has long since moved past being the flower of fancy and a critic's darling, and it's moved squarely into the battleship-gray of slogging out code and getting line-of-business apps done. Java8 adopting function literals (aka "closures") and retrofitting the Collection library to use them will be a subtle, but powerful, extension to the lifetime of the Java language, but it's never going to be sexy again. Fortunately, it doesn't need to be.
  • Microsoft will start courting the .NET developers again. Windows8 left a bad impression in the minds of many .NET developers, with the emphasis on HTML/JavaScript apps and C++ apps, leaving many .NET developers to wonder if they were somehow rendered obsolete by the new platform. Despite numerous attempts in numerous ways to tell them no, developers still seem to have that opinion--and Microsoft needs to go on the offensive to show them that .NET and Windows8 (and WinRT) do, in fact, go very well together. Microsoft can't afford for their loyal developer community to feel left out or abandoned. They know that, and they'll start working on it.
  • Samsung will start pushing themselves further and further into the consumer market. They already have started gathering more and more of a consumer name for themselves, they just need to solidify their tablet offerings and get closer in line with either Google (for Android tablets) or even Microsoft (for Windows8 tablets and/or Surface competitors) to compete with Apple. They may even start looking into writing their own tablet OS, which would be something of a mistake, but an understandable one.
  • Apple's next release cycle will, again, be "more of the same". iPhone 6, iPad 4, iPad Mini 2, MacBooks, MacBook Airs, none of them are going to get much in the way of innovation or new features. Apple is going to run squarely into the Innovator's Dilemma soon, and their products are going to be "more of the same" for a while. Incremental improvements along a couple of lines, perhaps, but nothing Earth-shattering. (Hey, Apple, how about opening up Siri to us to program against, for example, so we can hook into her command structure and hook our own apps up? I can do that with Android today, why not her?)
  • Visual Studio 2014 features will start being discussed at the end of the year. If Microsoft is going to hit their every-two-year-cycle with Visual Studio, then they'll start talking/whispering/rumoring some of the v.Next features towards the middle to end of 2013. I fully expect C# 6 will get some form of type providers, Visual Basic will be a close carbon copy of C# again, and F# 4 will have something completely revolutionary that anyone who sees it will be like, "Oh, cool! Now, when can I get that in C#?"
  • Scala interest wanes. As much as I don't want it to happen, I think interest in Scala is going to slow down, and possibly regress. This will be the year that Typesafe needs to make a major splash if they want to show the world that they're serious, and I don't know that the JVM world is really all that interested in seeing a new player. Instead, I think Scala will be seen as what "the 1%" of the Java community uses, and the rest will take some ideas from there and apply them (poorly, perhaps) to Java.
  • Interest in native languages will rise. Just for kicks, developers will start experimenting with some of the new compile-to-native-code languages (Go, Rust, Slate, Haskell, whatever) and start finding some of the joys (and heartaches) that come with running "on the metal". More importantly, they'll start looking at ways to use these languages with platforms where running "on the metal" is more important, like mobile devices and tablets.

As always, folks, thanks for reading. See you next year.

UPDATE: Two things happened this week (7 Jan 2013) that made me want to add to this list:
  • Hardware is the new platform. A buddy of mine (Scott Davis) pointed out on a mailing list we share that "hardware is the new platform", and with Microsoft's Surface out now, there's three major players (Apple, Google, Microsoft) in this game. It's becoming apparent that more and more companies are starting to see opportunities in going the Apple route of owning not just the OS and the store, but the hardware underneath it. More and more companies are going to start playing this game, too, I think, and we're going to see Amazon take some shots here, and probably a few others. Of course, already announced is the Ubuntu Phone, and a new Android-like player, Tizen, but I'm not thinking about new players--there's always new players--but about some of the big standouts. And look for companies like Dell and HP to start looking for ways to play in this game, too, either through partnerships or acquisitions. (Hello, Oracle, I'm looking at you.... And Adobe, too.)
  • APIs for lots of things are going to come out. Ford just did this. This is not going away--this is going to proliferate. And the startup community is going to lap it up like kittens attacking a bowl of cream. If you're looking for a play in the startup world, pursue this.

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Tuesday, January 01, 2013 1:22:30 AM (Pacific Standard Time, UTC-08:00)
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