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 Wednesday, July 16, 2008
Object.hashCode implementation

After the previous post, I just had to look. The implementation of Object.equals is, as was previously noted, just "return this == obj", but the implementation of Object.hashCode is far more complicated.

Taken straight from the latest hg-pulled OpenJDK sources, Object.hashCode is a native method registered from Object.c that calls into a Hotspot-exported function, JVM_IHashCode(), from hotspot\src\share\vm\prims\jvm.cpp:

JVM_ENTRY(jint, JVM_IHashCode(JNIEnv* env, jobject handle))
JVMWrapper("JVM_IHashCode");
// as implemented in the classic virtual machine; return 0 if object is NULL
return handle == NULL ? 0 : ObjectSynchronizer::FastHashCode (THREAD, JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(handle)) ;
JVM_END

which in turn calls ObjectSynchronizer::FastHashCode, defined in hotspot\src\share\vm\runtime\synchronizer.cpp as:

intptr_t ObjectSynchronizer::FastHashCode (Thread * Self, oop obj) {
if (UseBiasedLocking) {
// NOTE: many places throughout the JVM do not expect a safepoint
// to be taken here, in particular most operations on perm gen
// objects. However, we only ever bias Java instances and all of
// the call sites of identity_hash that might revoke biases have
// been checked to make sure they can handle a safepoint. The
// added check of the bias pattern is to avoid useless calls to
// thread-local storage.
if (obj->mark()->has_bias_pattern()) {
// Box and unbox the raw reference just in case we cause a STW safepoint.
Handle hobj (Self, obj) ;
// Relaxing assertion for bug 6320749.
assert (Universe::verify_in_progress() ||
!SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint(),
"biases should not be seen by VM thread here");
BiasedLocking::revoke_and_rebias(hobj, false, JavaThread::current());
obj = hobj() ;
assert(!obj->mark()->has_bias_pattern(), "biases should be revoked by now");
}
}

// hashCode() is a heap mutator ...
// Relaxing assertion for bug 6320749.
assert (Universe::verify_in_progress() ||
!SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint(), "invariant") ;
assert (Universe::verify_in_progress() ||
Self->is_Java_thread() , "invariant") ;
assert (Universe::verify_in_progress() ||
((JavaThread *)Self)->thread_state() != _thread_blocked, "invariant") ;

ObjectMonitor* monitor = NULL;
markOop temp, test;
intptr_t hash;
markOop mark = ReadStableMark (obj);

// object should remain ineligible for biased locking
assert (!mark->has_bias_pattern(), "invariant") ;

if (mark->is_neutral()) {
hash = mark->hash(); // this is a normal header
if (hash) { // if it has hash, just return it
return hash;
}
hash = get_next_hash(Self, obj); // allocate a new hash code
temp = mark->copy_set_hash(hash); // merge the hash code into header
// use (machine word version) atomic operation to install the hash
test = (markOop) Atomic::cmpxchg_ptr(temp, obj->mark_addr(), mark);
if (test == mark) {
return hash;
}
// If atomic operation failed, we must inflate the header
// into heavy weight monitor. We could add more code here
// for fast path, but it does not worth the complexity.
} else if (mark->has_monitor()) {
monitor = mark->monitor();
temp = monitor->header();
assert (temp->is_neutral(), "invariant") ;
hash = temp->hash();
if (hash) {
return hash;
}
// Skip to the following code to reduce code size
} else if (Self->is_lock_owned((address)mark->locker())) {
temp = mark->displaced_mark_helper(); // this is a lightweight monitor owned
assert (temp->is_neutral(), "invariant") ;
hash = temp->hash(); // by current thread, check if the displaced
if (hash) { // header contains hash code
return hash;
}
// WARNING:
// The displaced header is strictly immutable.
// It can NOT be changed in ANY cases. So we have
// to inflate the header into heavyweight monitor
// even the current thread owns the lock. The reason
// is the BasicLock (stack slot) will be asynchronously
// read by other threads during the inflate() function.
// Any change to stack may not propagate to other threads
// correctly.
}

// Inflate the monitor to set hash code
monitor = ObjectSynchronizer::inflate(Self, obj);
// Load displaced header and check it has hash code
mark = monitor->header();
assert (mark->is_neutral(), "invariant") ;
hash = mark->hash();
if (hash == 0) {
hash = get_next_hash(Self, obj);
temp = mark->copy_set_hash(hash); // merge hash code into header
assert (temp->is_neutral(), "invariant") ;
test = (markOop) Atomic::cmpxchg_ptr(temp, monitor, mark);
if (test != mark) {
// The only update to the header in the monitor (outside GC)
// is install the hash code. If someone add new usage of
// displaced header, please update this code
hash = test->hash();
assert (test->is_neutral(), "invariant") ;
assert (hash != 0, "Trivial unexpected object/monitor header usage.");
}
}
// We finally get the hash
return hash;
}

Hope this answers all the debates. :-)

Editor's note: Yes, I know it's a long quotation of code completely out of context; my goal here is simply to suggest that the hashCode() implementation is not just a integerification of the object's address in memory, as was suggested in other discussions. For whatever it's worth, the get_next_hash() implementation that's referenced in the FastHashCode() method looks like:

// hashCode() generation :
//
// Possibilities:
// * MD5Digest of {obj,stwRandom}
// * CRC32 of {obj,stwRandom} or any linear-feedback shift register function.
// * A DES- or AES-style SBox[] mechanism
// * One of the Phi-based schemes, such as:
// 2654435761 = 2^32 * Phi (golden ratio)
// HashCodeValue = ((uintptr_t(obj) >> 3) * 2654435761) ^ GVars.stwRandom ;
// * A variation of Marsaglia's shift-xor RNG scheme.
// * (obj ^ stwRandom) is appealing, but can result
// in undesirable regularity in the hashCode values of adjacent objects
// (objects allocated back-to-back, in particular). This could potentially
// result in hashtable collisions and reduced hashtable efficiency.
// There are simple ways to "diffuse" the middle address bits over the
// generated hashCode values:
//

static inline intptr_t get_next_hash(Thread * Self, oop obj) {
intptr_t value = 0 ;
if (hashCode == 0) {
// This form uses an unguarded global Park-Miller RNG,
// so it's possible for two threads to race and generate the same RNG.
// On MP system we'll have lots of RW access to a global, so the
// mechanism induces lots of coherency traffic.
value = os::random() ;
} else
if (hashCode == 1) {
// This variation has the property of being stable (idempotent)
// between STW operations. This can be useful in some of the 1-0
// synchronization schemes.
intptr_t addrBits = intptr_t(obj) >> 3 ;
value = addrBits ^ (addrBits >> 5) ^ GVars.stwRandom ;
} else
if (hashCode == 2) {
value = 1 ; // for sensitivity testing
} else
if (hashCode == 3) {
value = ++GVars.hcSequence ;
} else
if (hashCode == 4) {
value = intptr_t(obj) ;
} else {
// Marsaglia's xor-shift scheme with thread-specific state
// This is probably the best overall implementation -- we'll
// likely make this the default in future releases.
unsigned t = Self->_hashStateX ;
t ^= (t << 11) ;
Self->_hashStateX = Self->_hashStateY ;
Self->_hashStateY = Self->_hashStateZ ;
Self->_hashStateZ = Self->_hashStateW ;
unsigned v = Self->_hashStateW ;
v = (v ^ (v >> 19)) ^ (t ^ (t >> 8)) ;
Self->_hashStateW = v ;
value = v ;
}

value &= markOopDesc::hash_mask;
if (value == 0) value = 0xBAD ;
assert (value != markOopDesc::no_hash, "invariant") ;
TEVENT (hashCode: GENERATE) ;
return value;
}

Thus (hopefully) putting the idea that it might be allocating a hash based on the object's identity completely to rest.

For the record, this is all from the OpenJDK source base--naturally, it's possible that earlier VM implementations did something entirely different.